根據線上發表於11月21日外科學誌(Archives of Surgery)的研究，身體質量指數(BMI)較低的病患在一般手術與血管手術後30天內的死亡率比體重較重者高，校正其他與體重無關的病患本身或手術相關死亡率風險因素之後，此關聯依舊成立。
Vilazodone is the newest selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD, affecting nearly 19 million people in the U.S., is characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest in usual activities, significant change in weight or appetite, sleep disorders, increased fatigue, impaired concentration, and suicidal thoughts or behavior. The most commonly prescribed drugs for MDD are SSRIs and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). These agents are preferred because of their relative efficacy and safety and because they are less toxic in overdose than older antidepressants (i.e., tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors [MAOIs]).
Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% is approved for the treatment of head lice infestation in patients aged ≥4 years. Head lice, a common problem among U.S. schoolchildren, are spread mainly by direct head-to-head contact with someone who already has head lice. Spinosad provides an alternative to OTC shampoos containing pyrethrin or permethrin and prescription medications including malathion, lindane, and benzyl alcohol lotion.
Lurasidone is the newest atypical antipsychotic (AA) agent approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Annually, schizophrenia affects about 1% of the U.S. population aged ≥18 years. The disorder is characterized by three symptom types: positive (abnormal behavior), negative (inability to perform daily activities), and cognitive (inability to make decisions).
Dabigatran was approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). It is the first alternative to warfarin to be approved by the FDA. Replacement drugs for warfarin are considered potential blockbusters because of the critical need for them, particularly as the aging population becomes more vulnerable to AF and other conditions that can cause blood clots. AF affects more than 2 million Americans.
Azilsartan is the newest angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. Hypertension, defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) of ≥140 mmHg/90 mmHg, affects approximately 75 million Americans and is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart failure, heart attack, renal failure (RF), and death. Drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system, including ARBs, ACE inhibitors, and renin inhibitors, have become standard treatments for hypertension.
The mix of oral bacteria differs in individuals with different risks for pneumonia, Samit Joshi, DO, MPH, a fellow in infectious diseases at the Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, reported here at the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) 49th Annual Meeting.
Severe acute alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening alcoholic liver disease.1 Although glucocorticoid treatment is recommended2,3 and improves survival,4-11 mortality remains high, with 35% of patients dying within 6 months.1Long-term alcohol consumption increases intestinal permeability, worsens endotoxemia,12 stimulates Kupffer cells,13 and thus increases production of proinflammatory cytokines.14 High levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) activate cell-death pathways and induce the production of reactive oxygen species, notably superoxide anions, by the hepatocyte mitochondria, leading to cell death.