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目前日期文章:201112 (31)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要

去年的這時候,我寫下了總結,不過不是針對藥師的工作,是針對生活上的改變

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If women didn’t already have enough reasons to quit smoking before pregnancy, here’s a big one: Smoking during pregnancy may set their child up for blood vessel damage, a new study shows.

Dutch scientists enrolled more than 250 children. When the children were 4 weeks old, their body dimensions and lung function were measured. At the same time, their parents completed questionnaires about such factors as smoking during pregnancy.

When the children were 5, the researchers used ultrasound to measure the thickness and flexibility of their carotid arteries, large blood vessels in the neck that supply blood to the brain. They also collected updated smoking information from their parents.

The walls of the carotid arteries in 5-year-olds whose mothers had smoked throughout pregnancy were about 19 microns thicker -- about one to two times the thickness of a piece of cassette tape -- and 15% stiffer than those whose mothers had not smoked.

If both parents smoked while they were in the womb, the children’s carotid arteries were nearly 28 microns thicker and 21% stiffer than those of children whose parents didn’t smoke during pregnancy. These changes may indicate damage to blood vessels that may affect their function, the study authors suggest.

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有兩篇研究發現,維生素D可預防心臟病或癌症的證據很少。

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根據丹麥研究者線上發表於12月19日Gut期刊的大型長期研究,子宮內膜異位和發生發炎性腸道疾病(IBD)風險增加有關。

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Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis accounts for approximately 20% of cases of the nephrotic syndrome in children and 40% of such cases in adults, with an estimated incidence of 7 per 1 million.

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新研究發現,懷孕時使用吸入型腎上腺糖皮質素,不會增加孩童大部分疾病的風險,但是會增加內分泌和代謝異常的風險。這些結果線上刊載於12月16日的美國呼吸道與重症醫學期刊。
  
  與懷孕期間未使用吸入型腎上腺糖皮質素者之子代相比,在懷孕期間使用吸入型腎上腺糖皮質素之丹麥婦女的子代中,孩童時期的內分泌和代謝異常風險顯著增加(風險比1.84;95% 信心區間1.13 - 2.99),但其他類別疾病則無;疾病分類是根據國際疾病分類第10版。
  
  瑞士Basel大學心理系教授Marion Tegethoff博士等人寫道,就我們所知,這是首度比較懷孕時使用吸入型腎上腺糖皮質素對子代健康之可能影響的綜合研究,研究範圍涵蓋了大部分的兒科疾病。

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Question

Should iron supplementation be continued in patients with infection?

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對於小兒痙攣的有效治療參數建議

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Advate.jpg  

Baxter International Inc. today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ADVATE [Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant) Plasma/Albumin Free Method] for routine prophylaxis to prevent or reduce the frequency of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia A. ADVATE is the only antihemophilic factor approved in the United States for prophylactic use in both adults and children.

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上次跟各位提過可能影響性反應的藥物分類 Classes of medication that may affect sexual response

現在來介紹哪些藥物是用來治療因為服用抗憂鬱繼而引起的性功能障礙

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服用部分藥物可能會改變性的反應,例如性慾低落,或是異常勃起,百憂解(fluoxetine)就是其中一個例子

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jakafi-approval1.jpg  

FDA核准 Jakafi 治療骨髓纖維化的藥物

這邊之前有介紹過:[Medscape Medical News][Oncology]First Drug(Ruxolitinib (Incyte)) for Myelofibrosis Offers Symptom Relief

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Jakafi (ruxolitinib), the first drug approved to specifically treat patients with the bone marrow disease myelofibrosis.

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Intermezzo翻譯為間奏曲,是目前第一個舌下的安眠藥用於治療半夜失眠的患者。

另外一個同成分的商品名為:Edluar

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Maintains clearness of vision in those with wet age-related macular degeneration

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使用diazepam或lorazepam來治療酒精中毒比較表

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Bazedoxifene (Conbriza®, Viviant®) is the first third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and it is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in the EU and Japan. Bazedoxifene contains an indole-based core binding domain that binds with high affinity to estrogen receptors and exhibits favourable effects on bone and lipid profiles, with no clinically relevant endometrial or breast stimulation. Oral bazedoxifene once daily reduced the incidence of new vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis in a large, well designed trial of 3 years' duration; both bazedoxifene and raloxifene were significantly more effective than placebo. Neither bazedoxifene nor raloxifene reduced the incidence of nonvertebral fractures in the overall study population; however, bazedoxifene, but not raloxifene, reduced the rate of nonvertebral fractures in high-risk patients. Moreover, data from patients who continued to receive the drug during a 2-year extension phase of this trial indicate that bazedoxifene continues to provide protection against new vertebral fractures for up to 5 years. Bazedoxifene also increases bone mineral density and reduces the levels of bone turnover markers. Bazedoxifene was generally well tolerated and did not detrimentally affect the reproductive tract or breast tissue in clinical trials, thereby demonstrating a favourable risk-benefit profile. A pharmacoeconomic analysis conducted from an EU perspective predicted bazedoxifene to be cost effective in some EU countries. Therefore, bazedoxifene presents another useful option for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in those at high risk for osteoporotic fracture.

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By Dr Ananya Mandal, MD

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released new guidelines on treating so-called “latent” tuberculosis (TB) infection in the United States. They suggest the course of the therapy from about 9 months could be shortened to 3 months.

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除了本身的疾病造成以外,下面表格是藥物引起的食道逆流

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12441-0550x0475.jpg  

成骨不全症(Osteogenesis Imperfecta)指的是一種因先天遺傳性缺陷而引起第一型膠原纖維病變,造成骨骼強度耐受力變差而容易脆弱骨折的疾病。男性女性受侵犯的機率大約相同,統計上每二萬個生產會有一個,成骨不全症根據遺傳基因或骨骼脆度及骨骼系統外的表徵一般分成四型( Sillence classification I-IV),另外比較細的分類會分到八型。

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Rheumatoid arthritis is a common autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability, systemic complications, early death, and socioeconomic costs.1 The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, and the prognosis is guarded. However, advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease have fostered the development of new therapeutics, with improved outcomes. The current treatment strategy, which reflects this progress, is to initiate aggressive therapy soon after diagnosis and to escalate the therapy, guided by an assessment of disease activity, in pursuit of clinical remission.

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