INTRODUCTION — Radiation exposure in children is a rare occurrence. However, the potential for radiation exposure is significant. Since 1944, there have been more than 400 radiation accidents worldwide with 45 incidents occurring between 1961 and 2008. Since 1961, there has been potential radiation exposure of more than 750,000 individuals and at least 106 deaths [1,2] Most of the exposures (88 percent) occurred in the Chernobyl nuclear disaster of 1986, which also resulted in 28 immediate deaths [3]. More than one-half of the accidents (59 percent) meeting criteria for "serious exposure" as defined by the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site (REAC/TS) have occurred in the United States [1,4].

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