但是當黃斑部受到藍光傷害時，就會漸漸的受損，當然，隨著年齡增加，你所接受到的藍光傷害也會增加，因此你也會看到這樣一個名詞：Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Classification of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD).
Column A shows medium-size drusen (arrows) in early AMD, and Column B shows a large druse (arrows) in intermediate AMD. In Column C, a photograph of the fundus shows geographic atrophy (white arrow), and a histopathological photograph shows geographic atrophy with loss of Bruch's membrane (black arrow). In Column D, the photograph of the fundus with neovascular age-related macular degeneration shows subretinal hemorrhage (blue arrow) and choroidal neovascularization (white arrow), and the histopathological photograph shows choroidal neovascularization (black arrow). (Images courtesy of Mort Smith, M.D., and Deepak Edward, M.D.)
Progression from Early to Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
Drusen can be classified according to size, appearance, biochemical composition, and examination technique.5,6 With increasing age, drusen become confluent and larger, sometimes crystalline, less circumscribed, or accompanied by hyperpigmentations or hypopigmentations of the RPE. Panel A shows early age-related macular degeneration in two maculas: the macula shown on the left-hand side contains small drusen (arrow) and some large, indistinctly bordered drusen in the fovea; the macula shown on the right-hand side contains more drusen and focal hyperpigmentation (arrow). The left-hand side of Panel B shows early age-related macular degeneration characterized by extensive small and large drusen in and around the macula; the right-hand side shows crystalline drusen (arrowhead) and a small patch of late dry age-related macular degeneration (arrow). The left-hand side of Panel C shows early age-related macular degeneration, with crystalline and calcified drusen (arrowheads); on the right-hand side (also early age-related macular degeneration) are large confluent drusen leading to a drusenoid detachment of the RPE, with hyperpigmentation (arrowheads). Panel D (late age-related macular degeneration) shows dry age-related macular degeneration, with a central island in which photoreceptors are still functioning (arrow); this eye has a complete ring scotoma around a small central visual-field remnant. Panel E (late age-related macular degeneration) shows wet age-related macular degeneration in the form of a large serous detachment of the RPE (with borders marked by arrowheads) caused by fluid leaking from a subretinal neovascular membrane. Panel F (late age-related macular degeneration) shows the development of wet age-related macular degeneration with a subfoveal hemorrhage surrounded by detachment of the RPE (arrowheads). Panel G (late age-related macular degeneration) shows dry age-related macular degeneration (black arrows), in which the orange lines are large choroidal vessels, surrounded by glial scar tissue (arrowheads) resulting from a large subretinal hemorrhage with a small remnant (white arrow). Panel H (late age-related macular degeneration) shows cicatricial wet age-related macular degeneration, with glial scarring in the macula and remnants of hemorrhages at its temporal border (arrowhead).
RPE Cell in a 3-Year-Old Child (Left-Hand Panel) and an 80-Year-Old Person (Right-Hand Panel).
The outer segments of the rods and cones are embedded in the interphotoreceptor matrix (blue-gray areas) and partially surrounded by apical pseudopodial RPE processes (APRP). The shed disks (right-hand panel) become encapsulated in the phagosomes and are digested in phagolysosomes in the cell cytoplasm of the RPE. Macrophages and fused macrophages (giant cells) remove cellular debris around the cell. Light-induced toxicity occurs as light is absorbed by the various chromophores in the lipofuscin granules. This damages DNA and cell membranes and causes inflammation and apoptosis. The right-hand panel shows enlarged lipofuscin granules, the thickened Bruch's membrane, and the attenuation of the choriocapillaris. The central elastic lamina in Bruch's membrane becomes more porous in old age.