Calcium enters the smooth muscle cell through voltage-gated, ligand-gated, stretch-activated, and “leak” calcium channels.

major route of calcium entry android exit from the cytoplasm of smooth muscle  

Calcium can also be released into the cell from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and Ca2+-stimulated calcium release. The processes on the left side increase cytoplasmic calcium and promote contraction; those on the right side decrease internal calcium and promote relaxation. DAG, diacylglycerol; IP3, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; PIP2, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.


Medical Physiology: Principles of Clinical Medicine


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