Toxic Exposure

Human Beings





Ethylene glycol (antifreeze)

CNS depression, metabolic acidosis, oxalate crystals in urine, respiratory/ cardiac difficulty, renal failure, cerebral edema

(LD 4.4 cc/kg)

30 min-12 hr after ingestion: polyuria, polydipsia, CNS depression, ataxia, vomiting, oxalate crystals in urine

36-72 hr after ingestion: oliguria, lethargy, coma

(LD 1.4 cc/kg)

30 min-12 hr after ingestion: CNS depression, ataxia, vomiting, polyuria, oxalate crystals in urine

12–24 hr after injection: oliguria, lethargy, coma, swollen/ painful kidneys

 (poultry LD 7-8

cc/kg)23CNS depression,


Fluids, supportive


In human beings and dogs, fomepizole to inhibit ADH

In cats, ethanol to inhibit ADH

Dialysis effective for renal insufficiency in human beings

Household cleaners Chlorine bleach, ammonia, others

nhalation: respiratory irritation (fumes): coughing, gagging, sneezing, asthma

Ingestion: GI distress, vomiting

Dermal: skin irritation

Ingestion: vomiting, hypersalivation, depression

Inhalation: coughing, gagging, sneezing

Pulmonary irritation, retching, coughing

Concentrated ammonia: seizures and death within 5 minutes

Respiratory irritation, death

Removal from exposure, substitution of less irritating cleaning agents, supportive care of irritation

Slug bait (metaldehyde)


Toxic level not known; most ingestions not serious

Salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tachycardia can occur

Immediate to 3 hr after ingestion:

Convulsions, tremors, hyperthermia, hyperpnea, vomiting, cyanosis, depression, ataxia, seizures, death

LD50 (ingestion) 100 mg/kg in dogs, 207 mg/kg cats11

LD50 500 mg/kg (chickens)

Remove from GI tract, activated charcoal; control seizures, spasms; treat acidosis


Many plants with low toxicity

Many plants toxic to animals, including lilies, azaleas, rhododendron

Oleander (cardiac glycosides)

Dizziness, nausea, cardiac arrhythmias

Vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac toxicity (tachycardia, heart block)

GI decontamination, activated charcoal Cardiac monitoring,

digoxin-specific Fab fragment

Mushrooms, toadstools (Amanita toxin


Amanita: Liver, kidney toxicity: vomiting, pain, jaundice


GI decontamination, activated charcoal



Warfarin and related compounds


Anemia, spontaneous bleeding, hematomas, melena

GI decontamination, charcoal, vitamin K


Altered mental status, seizures

Hindlimb ataxia, tremors, hyperthermia, seizures, coma

GI decontamination, treatment of cerebral edema

Teflon fumes (PFOA)


Polymer fume fever (flulike symptoms)

None known


Respiratory distress, death

Remove from exposure, supportive care

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