螢幕快照 2014-06-18 9.11.37相關便秘的知識,可以參考這邊:

[期刊轉載]American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on constipation.

Bristol Stool Scale

[Medscape][FDA Approvals]FDA Approves Amitiza for Opioid-induced Constipation

點我看全部

Category

Subcategory

Examples

Dietary andlifestyle

Dehydration or inadequate fluid intake

Low fiber diet

Bed rest or inactivity

Chronic suppression of defecatory urge

Medications

Analgesics

Opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories

 

Diuretics

Thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics

 

Antihypertensives

Calcium channel blockers, clonidine

 

Anticholinergics

Antihistamines, antispasmodics, antidepressants,antipsychotics

 

Bile acid resins

 

 

Cation-containing agents

Barium, iron supplements, calcium or aluminum (dietary supplements, antacids, sucralfate)

 

Neurally active agents

Ganglionic blockers, serotonin antagonists,vinca alkaloids

Structural

Anorectal

Rectal prolapse,rectal intussusception,rectocele, 

anorectal stricture, perineal descent, 

anal sphincter spasm from anal fissure or painful hemorrhoids,

solitary rectal ulcer,megarectum,neoplasm,fecal impaction

 

Colonic stricture or obstruction

Neoplasm, ischemia, inflammation (diverticulitis, proctitis), post-radiation

Neurogenic

Peripheral neurologic dysfunction

Autonomic neuropathy, diabetes mellitus, Hirschsprung’s disease, American trypanosomiasis

 

Central neurologic dysfunction

Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury or tumor,cerebrovascular accident

 

 

Colonic pseudoobstruction

Megacolon, Ogilvie syndrome

 

Cerebral impairment leading to defecatory failure

Dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke

Other systemic

Endocrine

Hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hyperpara- thyroidism, panhypopituitarism, pheochro- mocytoma, pregnancy

 

Metabolic

Chronic kidney disease, electrolyte abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnese- mia), heavy metal poisoning, porphyria

 

Myopathic

Myotonic dystrophy, scleroderma, amyloidosis

 

Psychiatric

Depression, anorexia nervosa, dementia, abuse

 

Other

Sarcoidosis

 

 

    快樂小藥師 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()